Archive

Posts Tagged ‘animals’

Prehistoric bugs from 230 million years ago found in amber


August 27, 2012

Scientists find oldest occurrence of arthropods preserved in amber 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These photomicrographs are of the two new species of ancient gall mites in 230-million-year-old amber droplets from northeastern Italy, taken at 1000x magnification. The gall mites were named (left) Triasacarus fedelei and (right) Ampezzoa triassica. Credit: University of Göttingen/A. Schmidt

(Phys.org)—An international team of scientists has discovered the oldest record of arthropods—invertebrate animals that include insects, arachnids, and crustaceans—preserved in amber. The specimens, one fly and two mites found in millimeter-scale droplets of amber from northeastern Italy, are about 100 million years older than any other amber arthropod ever collected. The group’s findings, which are published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pave the way for a better evolutionary understanding of the most diverse group of organisms in the world.

Amber is an extremely valuable tool for paleontologists because it preserves specimens with microscopic fidelity, allowing uniquely accurate estimates of the amount of evolutionary change over millions of years,” said corresponding author David Grimaldi, a curator in the American Museum of Natural History’s Division of Invertebrate Zoology and a world authority on amber and fossil arthropods.

Globules of fossilized resin are typically called amber. Amber ranges in age from the Carboniferous (about 340 million years ago) to about 40,000 years ago, and has been produced by myriad plants, from tree ferns to flowering trees, but predominantly by conifers. Even though arthropods are more than 400 million years old, until now, the oldest record of the animals in amber dates to about 130 million years. The newly discovered arthropods break that mold with an age of 230 million years. They are the first arthropods to be found in amber from the Triassic Period.

Read more: http://phys.org/news/2012-08-prehistoric-bugs-million-years.html

Arctic Biologist Shares Astonishing Sea Creatures With the World


  There is no road to the White Sea Biological Station, which sits at latitude 66° N on the cusp of the Arctic Circle. Located on the shores of its namesake, the White Sea, the only way to get there is by boat in summer and snowmobile in winter since the waters of Kandalaksha Bay are frozen six months out of the year.

Inside the station is an unlikely photo studio where Alexander Semenov, 25, is sharing his stunning photographs of arctic sea creatures with the global online community.

“I’m trying to act like the Discovery channel, but as a single unit,” says Semenov.

 Read more: http://www.wired.com/rawfile/2012/07/arctic-sea-creatures/?pid=2706

2012 Animal deaths list


[ Approximately 91 incidents in 27 different countries in the first 130 days of 2012]

8th May 2012 – Low numbers of Mutton birds returning to NZ is “most unusual event” in 20 years studying these birds New Zealand.

7th May 2012 – Fish kill in Kuwait Bay in Kuwait.
5th May 2012 – 50,000 Fish found dead in a pond in Shenzhen in China.
5th May 2012 – Mass Bird death discovered in waste water in Finland.
4th May 2012 – 2 TONNES of dead Fish found in a River in Jinzhou China.
4th May 2012 – Mass Fish kill found in Muttar River causing panic in India.
3rd May 2012 – Dead Fish are washing up on shore of Lake Houston in America.
2nd May 2012 – Large number of fish found dead in River in China.
2nd May 2012 – Many dead Fish washing up dead in Village causing panic in Turkey. 30th April 2012 – Hundreds of Bull RedFish found dead in Alabama.
28th April 2012 – 1200 Pelicans found dead in Peru.
27th April 2012 – Mass Fish kill on Lake Elsinore in California.
26th April 2012 – Mysterious Death of possibly thousands of Storks in Thailand.
25th April 2012 – 11,000 dead Fish found in River in Kettering, America.
25th April 2012 – 28,000 dead Fish found in River in Strongsville, America.
25th April 2012 – Porpoises dying in alarming numbers, causing concerns of a local “ecological catastrophe” in China.
25th April 2012 – 4 Dolphins wash ashore dead at Bandra Bandstand in India.
22nd April 2012 – Thousands more Fish wash ashore dead in Pakistan.
19th April 2012 – Thousands of Fish, also Cows and Dogs killed in Pakistan.
17th April 2012 – Thousands of fish (30 species) dead in a creek in Tennesse.
17th April 2012 – Thousands of fish continue to turn up dead in the Zandvlei Estuary in South Africa.
17th April 2012 – Several thousand Fish found dead in River in India.
17th April 2012 – Thousands of Dead Fish found floating in Pond in India.
13th April 2012 – Mass Bees falling dead in Canyon Country California.
13th April 2012 – Hundreds of dead Fish litter Ocean Floor in Durban South Africa.
11th April 2012 – 300 more Dolphins found dead on beaches in Peru.
11th April 2012 – 14,000 Fish dead in Creek in Missouri.
9th April 2012 – Thousands of fish found dead in Lake in India.
9th April 2012 – 3 Whales wash up dead in India.
6th April 2012 – Over 50 Turtles wash ashore dead in India.
6th April 2012 – Thousands of Dead Fish found in waterway in Malaysia.
5th April 2012 – Thousands of Dead Fish found floating in Ganga river in India.
4th April 2012 – 615 Dolphins Found Dead on Beaches in Peru.
4th April 2012 – Over 100 Dead Catfish found in Boyne River Australia.
3rd April 2012 – Thousands of Dolphins are dying in Gulf of Mexico.
1st April 2012 – 9,000 Livestock killed by Foot and Mouth Disease in Egypt.
1st April 2012 – 3,000 Dolphins have washed up dead this year in Peru.
30th March 2012 – Hundreds of Birds Killed in Hail storm in Texas.
20th March 2012 – Thousands of dead Fish wash up on riverbank in Singapore.
20th March 2012 – Thousands of dead Fish found in River in Minnesota.
17th March 2012 – 4 beached Whales die in East China.
13th March 2012 – 5,000 Fish found dead in a lake in Malaysia.
12th March 2012 – Disease Kills 170 Chickens in South Africa.
9th March 2012 – Dozens of birds drop dead in University grounds in Florida.
8th March 2012 – 34 Dolphins wash up dead along coast in Texas.
4th March 2012 – 400 Grey Seals found dead off Cape Breton in Australia.
3rd March 2012 – Many Little Penguins Dying in Perth, Australia.
2nd March 2012 – Thousands of Jellyfish wash ashore in Texas.
1st March 2012 – 800kg dead fish found in Cyprus.
NOTE: During 2011 – Record number (335) of Sea Otters either found dead or ill along California coast in America.
28th February 2012 – Over 20,000 Chickens dead in Dharke in Nepal.
27th February 2012 – Thousands of fish found dead at nature reserve in UK.
25th February 2012 – 60 Gulls found dead in New Zealand.
21st February 2012 – 3,000 Tuna Fish found dead off coast of Dubai.
21st February 2012 – 25 Rare Turtles wash up dead in Bangladesh.
18th February 2012 – Thousands of Lambs being killed by incurable virus in the UK.
16th February 2012 – Tonnes of dead Fish wash ashore in Somalia.
15th February 2012 – 100 dead birds found along highway in Maryland America.
14th February 2012 – UPDATE: 124 Dolphins have now beached and died in Cape Cod America.
9th February 2012 – Over 200 Dolphins wash up dead in Peru.
9th February 2012 – 800 dead Birds found in Christchurch New Zealand.
7th February 2012 – Dozens of dead Birds found on beach in Florida.
6th February 2012 – Tens of Thousands of Birds to be “culled” due to H5N1 virus in Nepal and India.
3rd February 2012 – Thousands of Fish wash up dead in Nigeria.
3rd February 2012 – 100 Pigeons found dead in South Dakota.
3rd February 2012 – 1,000 Fish found dead floating in two ponds in Virginia.
31st January 2012 – Massive Fish death in Philippines.
27th January 2012 – 64 Dolphins and Porpoises found dead along the Atlantic Coast.
27th January 2012 – 10,000 Fish found dead in Japan.
27th January 2012 – 12 Dolphins wash up dead in Louisiana.
27th January 2012 – 10,000 Ducks to be Killed in Australia.
24th January 2012 – 5,000 Fish found dead in Perth’s River in Australia.
UPDATE: 85 Dolphins beached, 61 dead in Cape Cod in America.
24th January 2012 – 82 Whales dead in New Zealand.
22nd January 2012 – Hundreds of dead Birds found in India.
21st January 2012 – 4 Whales found dead on beach in New Zealand.
19th January 2012 – 20,000 Birds killed by oil spill in New Zealand.
19th January 2012 – 3 TONNES of dead Fish wash ashore in Somalia.
NOTE: During the past 6 years, 6.7 MILLION Bats have died from White Nose Disease in America.
16th January 2012 – 53 Fur Seals found dead on Beach in Australia.
14th January 2012 – 30 Dolphins beach, 20 dead in Cape Cod in America.
11th January 2012 – Hundreds of dead Fish wash ashore in The Bahamas.
10th January 2012 – 2000 Chickens dead in India.
10th January 2012 – Large number of dead fish found floating across 3km of river in China.
9th January 2012 – Hundreds of Wildlife Animals found dead in Zimbabwe.
9th January 2012 – Dozens of Turtles found dead in Florida.
8th January 2012 – Thousands of Deer have died during past few months in Northern Plains in America.
7th January 2012 – Thousands of Dead Fish found floating in the Gholani River in India. 7th January 2012 – 7 Whales become stranded and die in New Zealand.
7th January 2012 – Thousands of Fish found dead in California.
5th January 2012 – 3000 Dead Fish in Ghana.
4th January 2012 – Oil soaked birds washing up dead on Western Isles of Scotland.
2nd January 2012 – 20 TONNES of Fish wash up dead on beach in Norway.
1st January 2012 – 200 Blackbirds found dead in Arkansas USA.

discuss further:

http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showthread.php?t=212767&page=2

 

The Pacific Ocean Is Dying


Thursday, 17 May 2012

A Special Report On the Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe

‘Just prior to the Supermoon of March 18th, 2011, the world witnessed a natural and manmade disaster of epic proportions. What transpired off the coast of Honshu Island, Japan on March 11 has forever altered the planet and irremediably affected the global environment. Whereas the earthquake and tsunami proved to be truly apocalyptic events for the people of Japan, the ongoing nuclear disaster at Fukushima is proving to be cataclysmic for the entire world.

Most of the world community is still unaware of the extremely profound and far-reaching effects that the Fukushima nuclear disaster has had. If the nations of the world really understood the implications of the actual ‘fallout’ – past, current and future – the current nuclear energy paradigm would be systematically shut down. For those of us who are in the know, it is incumbent upon each of us to disseminate the relevant information/data necessary to forever close down the nuclear power industry around the globe.’

Read more: The Pacific Ocean Is Dying

http://www.davidicke.com/headlines

“Map of Life” Shows the Location of All Organisms, Large and Small


By Rebecca Boyle  05.15.2012 at 4:45 pm http://www.popsci.com/

Ever wonder exactly where grizzly bears live on this continent? Or where you might find Myotis lucifungus, the fuzzy, adorable little brown bat that is currently threatened with extinction because of white-nose syndrome? Now you can track them on Google Maps, thanks to a new program that aims to plot the location of every single living thing on Earth.

Functions of the pituitary gland


I   INTRODUCTION  

Pituitary Gland, master endocrine gland in vertebrate animals. The hormones secreted by the pituitary stimulate and control the functioning of almost all the other endocrine glands in the body. Pituitary hormones also promote growth and control the water balance of the body. 


The pituitary is a small bean-shaped, reddish-gray organ located in the saddle-shaped depression (sella turcica) in the floor of the skull (the sphenoid bone) and attached to the base of the brain by a stalk; it is located near the hypothalamus. The pituitary has two

lobes—the anterior lobe, or adenohypophysis, and the posterior lobe, or neurohypophysis—which differ in structure and function. The anterior lobe is derived embryologically from the roof of the pharynx and is composed of groups of epithelial cells separated by blood channels; the posterior lobe is derived from the base of the brain and is composed of nervous connective tissue and nerve like secreting cells. The area between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary is called the intermediate lobe; it has the same embryological origin as the anterior lobe.

II THE ANTERIOR LOBE 

 
Concentrated chemical substances, or hormones, which control 10 to 12 functions in the body, have been obtained as extracts from the anterior pituitary glands of cattle, sheep, and swine. Eight hormones have been isolated, purified, and identified; all of them are peptides, that is, they are composed of amino acids. Growth hormone (GH), or the somatotropic hormone (STH), is essential for normal skeletal growth and is neutralized during adolescence by the gonadal sex hormones. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the normal functioning of the thyroid gland; and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) controls the activity of the cortex of the adrenal glands and takes part in the stress reaction (see Hydrocortisone). Prolactin, also called lactogenic, luteotropic, or mammotropic hormone, initiates milk secretion in the mammary gland after the mammary tissues have been prepared during pregnancy by the secretion of other pituitary and sex hormones. The two gonadotropic hormones are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the formation of the Graafian follicle in the female ovary and the development of spermatozoa in the male. The luteinizing hormone stimulates the formation of ovarian hormones after ovulation and initiates lactation in the female; in the male, it stimulates the tissues of the testes to elaborate testosterone. In 1975 scientists identified the pituitary peptide endorphin, which acts in experimental animals as a natural pain reliever in times of stress. Endorphin and ACTH are made as parts of a single large protein, which subsequently splits. This may be the body’s mechanism for coordinating the physiological activities of two stress-induced hormones. The same large prohormone that contains ACTH and endorphin also contains short peptides called melanocyte-stimulating hormones. These substances are analogous to the hormone that regulates pigmentation in fish and amphibians, but in humans they have no known function.

Research has shown that the hormonal activity of the anterior lobe is controlled by chemical messengers sent from the hypothalamus through tiny blood vessels to the anterior lobe. In the 1950s, the British neurologist Geoffrey Harris discovered that cutting the blood supply from the hypothalamus to the pituitary impaired the function of the pituitary. In 1964, chemical agents called releasing factors were found in the hypothalamus; these substances, it was learned, affect the secretion of growth hormone, a thyroid-stimulating hormone called thyrotropin, and the gonadotropic hormones involving the testes and ovaries. In 1969 the American endocrinologist Roger Guillemin and colleagues isolated and characterized thyrotropin-releasing factor, which stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. In the next few years his group and that of the American physiologist Andrew Victor Schally isolated the luteinizing hormone-releasing factor, which stimulates secretion of both LH and FSH, and somatostatin, which inhibits release of growth hormone. For this work, which proved that the brain and the endocrine system are linked, they shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1977. Human somatostatin was one of the first substances to be grown in bacteria by recombinant DNA.

The presence of the releasing factors in the hypothalamus helped to explain the action of the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and their synthetic versions contained in oral contraceptives, or birth-control pills. During a woman’s normal monthly cycle, several hormonal changes are needed for the ovary to produce an egg cell for possible fertilization. When the estrogen level in the body declines, the follicle-releasing factor (FRF) flows to the pituitary and stimulates the secretion of the follicle-stimulating hormone. Through a similar feedback principle, the declining level of progesterone causes a release of luteal-releasing factor (LRF), which stimulates secretion of the luteinizing hormone. The ripening follicle in the ovary then produces estrogen, and the high level of that hormone influences the hypothalamus to shut down temporarily the production of FSH. Increased progesterone feedback to the hypothalamus shuts down LH production by the pituitary. The daily doses of synthetic estrogen and progesterone in oral contraceptives, or injections of the actual hormones, inhibit the normal reproductive activity of the ovaries by mimicking the effect of these hormones on the hypothalamus.

III THE INTERMEDIATE LOBE

 
In lower vertebrates this part of the pituitary secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which brings about skin-color changes. In humans, it is present only for a short time early in life and during pregnancy, and is not known to have any function.

IV THE POSTERIOR LOBE 

 
Two hormones are secreted by the posterior lobe. One of these is the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), vasopressin. Vasopressin stimulates the kidney tubules to absorb water from the filtered plasma that passes through the kidneys and thus controls the amount of urine secreted by the kidneys. The other posterior pituitary hormone is oxytocin, which causes the contraction of the smooth muscles in the uterus, intestines, and blood arterioles. Oxytocin stimulates the contractions of the uterine muscles during the final stage of pregnancy to stimulate the expulsion of the fetus, and it also stimulates the ejection, or let-down, of milk from the mammary gland following pregnancy. Synthesized in 1953, oxytocin was the first pituitary hormone to be produced artificially. Vasopressin was synthesized in 1956.

V PITUITARY DISTURBANCES 

 
Pituitary functioning may be disturbed by such conditions as tumors, blood poisoning, blood clots, and certain infectious diseases. Conditions resulting from a decrease in anterior-lobe secretion include dwarfism, acromicria, Simmonds’s disease, and Fröhlich’s syndrome. Dwarfism occurs when anterior pituitary deficiencies occur during childhood; acromicria, in which the bones of the extremities are small and delicate, results when the deficiency occurs after puberty. Simmonds’s disease, which is caused by extensive damage to the anterior pituitary, is characterized by premature aging, loss of hair and teeth, anemia, and emaciation; it can be fatal. Fröhlich’s syndrome, also called adiposogenital dystrophy, is caused by both anterior pituitary deficiency and a lesion of the posterior lobe or hypothalamus. The result is obesity, dwarfism, and retarded sexual development. Glands under the influence of anterior pituitary hormones are also affected by anterior pituitary deficiency.

Oversecretion of one of the anterior pituitary hormones, somatotropin, results in a progressive chronic disease called acromegaly, which is characterized by enlargement of some parts of the body. Posterior-lobe deficiency results in diabetes insipidus.

http://www.thehormoneshop.com/pituitarygland.htm

 

 

1200 Pelicans, 900 dolphins Dead on beach In Peru


Mystery As Hundreds Of Pelicans Die In Peru

 The bodies of hundreds of pelicans have been found in Peru on the same beaches where almost 900 dead dolphins have washed up over the last month.

The government said they will investigate the deaths of almost 600 birds found along a 70km stretch of northern coastline – the majority of which are pelicans, but also include gannets.

The fisherman’s association in Puerto Eten, north Peru , said it found around 1,200 dead pelicans last week along a 170km string of beaches.

 Peru’s Institute of the Sea’s regional chief, Edward Barriga, described a similar event in the area from 1997 when a lack of anchovies resulted in the deaths of pelicans and cormorants.

At the time, the El Nino meteorological phenomenon was blamed for the lack of food. It occurs in the Pacific Ocean around every five years and results in variations in the temperature and pressure of the sea.

Over the last month the bodies of as many as 877 dolphins have also washed up in the region, which is approximately 700km northwest of the capital, Lima.

Officials are looking into whether a virus or seismic tests that have been carried out nearby could be the cause of the deaths.

But the government’s fisheries minister said that based on the evidence available they had not found a relationship between the animal bodies and tests related to the exploration of oil.

http://uk.news.yahoo.com/photos/mystery-hundreds-pelicans-die-peru-photo-16218928_400x240-115720705.html