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Posts Tagged ‘experiment’

Geoflow: Space Station Experiments Shed Light On Conditions Deep Inside Earth


ScienceDaily (June 25, 2012) — ESA astronaut André Kuipers is running experiments on the International Space Station that are shedding light on conditions deep inside Earth. Orbiting some 400 km above us, Geoflow is offering insights into the inner workings of our planet.

Geoflow data from the International Space Station showing how a liquid between two revolving concentric spheres moves as the temperature between the outer and inner sphere changes. (Credit: ESA)
 

Descending 3000 km under our feet, Earth’s mantle is a semi-solid fluid under our thin outer crust. The highly viscous layers vary with temperature, pressure and depth.

Understanding how the mantle flows is a major interest for geophysics because it could help to explain earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Computers can model it, but how can scientists be sure they are correct?

Read more: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120625192522.htm

FDA Approves Meningitis Vaccine After Big Pharma Conducts Human Experiments


Monday, 25 June 2012

‘The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given GlaxoSmithKilne (GSK) their approval of the MenHibrix vaccine(MHV), which is meant for infants between the ages of 6 weeks to 18 months. This vaccine is a dangerous mixture of the meningococcal disease and Hib disease. MHV will be manufactured in Rixensart, a Belgium-based arm of GSK Biologicals.

In 2010 and 2011, the FDA rejected MHV. GSK claims that they have “resolved” the FDA’s concerns about the necessity, potency and efficiency of MHV. This simply accepted GSK’s word that they have taken care of the vaccine’s issues. The FDA does not require more proof than that.’

Read more: FDA Approves Meningitis Vaccine After Big Pharma Conducts Human Experiments

http://www.davidicke.com/headlines/

Neutrons Escaping to a Parallel World?


ScienceDaily (June 15, 2012) — In a paper recently published in European Physical Journal (EPJ) C, researchers hypothesised the existence of mirror particles to explain the anomalous loss of neutrons observed experimentally. The existence of such mirror matter had been suggested in various scientific contexts some time ago, including the search for suitable dark matter candidates.

 

Researchers hypothesize the existence of mirror particles to explain the anomalous loss of neutrons observed experimentally. (Credit: © Pix by Marti / Fotolia)
 

Theoretical physicists Zurab Berezhiani and Fabrizio Nesti from the University of l’Aquila, Italy, reanalysed the experimental data obtained by the research group of Anatoly Serebrov at the Institut Laue-Langevin, France. It showed that the loss rate of very slow free neutrons appeared to depend on the direction and strength of the magnetic field applied. This anomaly could not be explained by known physics.

Berezhiani believes it could be interpreted in the light of a hypothetical parallel world consisting of mirror particles. Each neutron would have the ability to transition into its invisible mirror twin, and back, oscillating from one world to the other. The probability of such a transition happening was predicted to be sensitive to the presence of magnetic fields, and could therefore be detected experimentally.

Read more : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120615104347.htm

 

In Metallic Glasses, Researchers Find a Few New Atomic Structures


“The fundamental nature of a glass structure is that the organization of the atoms is disordered-jumbled up like differently sized marbles in a jar, rather than eggs in an egg carton,” says Paul Voyles, the principal investigator on the research. (Credit: © marionbirdy / Fotolia)

ScienceDaily (May 11, 2012) — Drawing on powerful computational tools and a state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscope, a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison and Iowa State University materials science and engineering researchers has discovered a new nanometer-scale atomic structure in solid metallic materials known as metallic glasses.

Published May 11 in the journal Physical Review Letters, the findings fill a gap in researchers’ understanding of this atomic structure. This understanding ultimately could help manufacturers fine-tune such properties of metallic glasses as ductility, the ability to change shape under force without breaking, and formability, the ability to form a glass without crystalizing.

Glasses include all solid materials that have a non-crystalline atomic structure: They lack a regular geometric arrangement of atoms over long distances. “The fundamental nature of a glass structure is that the organization of the atoms is disordered-jumbled up like differently sized marbles in a jar, rather than eggs in an egg carton,” says Paul Voyles, a UW-Madison associate professor of materials science and engineering and principal investigator on the research.

Researchers widely believe that atoms in metallic glasses are arranged only as pentagons in an order known as five-fold rotational symmetry. However, in studies of a zirconium-copper-aluminum metallic glass, Voyles’ team found there are clusters of squares and hexagons-in addition to clusters of pentagons, some of which form chains-all located within the space of just a few nanometers. “One or two nanometers is a group of about 50 atoms-and it’s how those 50 atoms are arranged with respect to one another that’s the new and interesting part,” he says.

Source:
The above story is reprinted from materials provided byUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison. The original article was written by Renee Meiller.


Chinese Physicists Teleport Photons Over 100 Kilometers


Teleportation is the extraordinary ability to transfer objects from one location to another without travelling through the intervening space.

The idea is not that the physical object is teleported but the information that describes it. This can then be applied to a similar object in a new location which effectively takes on the new identity.

And it is by no means science fiction. Physicists have been teleporting photons since 1997 and the technique is now standard in optics laboratories all over the world.

The phenomenon that makes this possible is known as quantum entanglement,  the deep and mysterious link that occurs when two quantum objects share the same existence and yet are separated in space.

Teleportation turns out to be extremely useful. Because teleported information does not travel through the intervening space, it cannot be secretly accessed by an eavesdropper.

For that reason, teleportation is the enabling technology behind quantum cryptography, a way of sending information with close-to-perfect secrecy.

Unfortunately, entangled photons are fragile objects. They cannot travel further than a kilometre or so down optical fibres because the photons end up interacting with the glass breaking the entanglement. That severely limits quantum cryptography’s usefulness.

However, physicists have had more success teleporting photons through the atmosphere. In 2010, a Chinese team announced that it had teleported single photons over a distance of 16 kilometres. Handy but not exactly Earth-shattering.

Now the same team says it has smashed this record. Juan Yin at the University of Science and Technology of China in Shanghai, and a bunch of mates say they have teleported entangled photons over a distance of 97 kilometres across a lake in China.

Read more: http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/27843/

Scientists bend gamma rays, could neuter radioactive waste


By posted May 10th 2012 5:54AM

 

 

 

Image

Bending most light is easy; bending it in gamma ray form, however, has often been deemed impossible given how hard it is for electrons to react to the extreme frequencies. University of Munich scientist Dietrich Habs and his Institut Laue-Langevin teammate Michael Jentschel have proven that assumption wrong: an experiment in blasting a silicon prism has shown that gamma rays will refract just slightly through the right material. If a lens is made out of a large-atom substance like gold to bend the rays further, the researchers envision focused beams of energy that could either detect radioactive material or even make it inert by wiping off neutrons and protons. In theory, it could turn a nuclear power plant’s waste harmless. A practical use of the technology is still some distance off — but that it’s even within sight at all just feels like a breakthrough.

 

Fed Up With Sluggish Neutrinos, Scientists Force Light To Move Faster Than Its Own Speed Limit


By Rebecca Boyle Posted 05.03.2012 at 3:07 pm

 

Our nation’s official keepers of time and other standards are breaking one of the cardinal rules: They have figured out how to make superluminal light pulses. This paradoxical sentence — faster-than-light light — is from a new paper explaining how to make the sine wave of light hunch in on itself and arrive a few nanoseconds earlier than it would if it had moved at light speed.

Human genes engineered into experimental GMO rice being grown in Kansas


Wednesday, May 02, 2012 by: Ethan A. Huff, staff writer at naturalnews.com

(NaturalNews) Unless the rice you buy is certified organic, or comes specifically from a farm that tests its rice crops for genetically modified (GM) traits, you could be eating rice tainted with actual human genes. The only known GMO with inbred human traits in cultivation today, a GM rice product made by biotechnology company Ventria Bioscience is currently being grown on 3,200 acres in Junction City, Kansas — and possibly elsewhere — and most people have no idea about it.

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/035745_GMO_rice_human_genes_Kansas.html#ixzz1thrwb000

Water drop at 10.000 fps


1:20 is amazing

10 Things You Didn’t Know About Light


A week ago, who among us would have guessed that light, the universe’s ultimate speed demon, would be observed getting outpaced by a bunch of reckless neutrinos? Yes, these observations will obviously need to be checked and rechecked, but it just goes to show that you rarely know as much about something as you think you do.

So in the interest of keeping you all as educated on light as possible, here are ten little-known historical and scientific facts about everyone’s favorite source of illumination.

10) Light can make some people sneeze
Between 18% and 35% of the human population is estimated to be affected by a so-called “photic sneeze reflex,” a heritable condition that results in sneezing when the person is exposed to bright light.

The exact cause of the reflex is poorly understood, but people have been kicking around possible explanations for millennia; Aristotle, for example, chalked the reflex up to the heat of the sun on one’s nose, while most modern-day scientists posit that a cranial nerve responsible for facial sensation and motor control (that is in close proximity to the optic nerve) picks up on electrical signals intended for the optic nerve and tells the brain that there is an irritant in the nose that needs to be cleared out.

10 Things You Didn't Know About Light9) Plato thought that human vision was dependent upon light, but not in the way you’re imagining
In the 4th Century BC, Plato conceived of a so-called “extramission theory” of sight, wherein visual perception depends on light that emanates from the eyes and “seizes objects with its rays.”

Plato’s student, Aristotle, was among the first to reject the extramission theory and the idea of a so-called “active eye,” advocating instead a passive, “intromission” theory of vision, whereby the eyes receive information via rays of light as opposed to generating these rays on their own. (Image via.)

8) Einstein was not the first one to come up with a theory of relativity
Many people associate “the speed of light” with Einstein’s theory of relativity, but the concept of relativity did not originate with Einstein. Props for relativity actually go to none other than Galileo, who was the first to propose formally that you cannot tell if a room is at rest, or moving at a constant speed in one direction, by simply observing the motion of objects in the room.

What Einstein did do was bring Galileo’s conception of relativity up to speed by combining it with Newton’s work with gravity, and James Clerk Maxwell’s equations addressing electricity and magnetism (equations, it bears mentioning, that predicted that waves of electromagnetic fields move at 299 792 458 meters per second — i.e. the speed of light).

7) E=mc^2 was once m=(4/3)E/c^2
Einstein was not the first person to relate energy with mass. Between 1881 and 1905, several scientists — most notably phycisist J.J. Thomson and Friedrich Hasenohrl — derived numerous equations relating the apparent mass of radiation with its energy, concluding, for example, that m=(4/3)E/c^2. What Einstein did was recognize the equivalence of mass and energy, along with the importance of that relevance in light of relativity, which gave rise to the famous equation we all recognized today.

 

 

 

10 Things You Didn't Know About Light 6)The light from the aurorae is the result of solar wind
When solar winds from cosmic events like solar flaresreach Earth’s atmosphere, they interact with particles of oxygen atoms, causing them to emit stunning green lights like the ones captured by the International Space Station last week (featured here).

 

These waves of light — termed the aurora borealis and aurora australis (or northern lights and southern lights, respectively) — are typically green, but hues of blue and red can be emitted from atmospheric nitrogen atoms, as well.

 

10 Things You Didn't Know About Light5) Neutrinos aren’t the first things to apparently outpace the speed of light
The Hubble telescope has detected the existence of countless galaxies receding from our point in space at speeds in excess of the speed of light. However, this still does not violate Einstein’s theories on relativity because it is space — not the galaxies themselves — that is expanding away (a symptom of the Big Bang), and “carrying” the aforementioned galaxies along with it.

4) This expansion means there are some galaxies whose light we’ll never see
As far as we can tell, the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. On account of this, there are some who predict that many of the Universe’s galaxies will eventually be carried along by expanding space at a rate that will prevent their light from reaching us at any time in the infinite future.

10 Things You Didn't Know About Light3) Bioluminescence lights the ocean deep
More than half of the visible light spectrum is absorbed within three feet of the ocean’s surface; at a depth of 10 meters, less than 20% of the light that entered at the surface is still visible; by 100 meters, this percentage drops to 0.5%.

In fact, at depths of over 1000 meters — a region of the ocean dubbed the “aphotic zone” — there is no detectable light whatsoever. As a result, the largest source of light in the Earth’s oceans actually emanates from animals residing in its depths; marine biologists estimate that between 80 and 90 percent of deep-sea creatures are bioluminescent (image via).

 

10 Things You Didn't Know About Light2) Bioluminescence: also in humans!
Bioluminescene isn’t just for jellyfish and the notorious, nightmare-inducing Anglerfish; in fact, humans emit light, too.

All living creatures produce some amount of light as a result of metabolic biochemical reactions, even if this light is not readily visible. Back in 2009, a team of Japanese researchers reported that “the human body literally glimmers,” after using incredibly sensitive cameras (the light is a thousand times weaker than the human eye can perceive) to capture the first evidence of human bioluminescence, pictured here. It’s worth mentioning that images C, D, E, F, and G, are not thermal images, but actually pictures of emitted photon intensity over the course of an average day.

This time-dependent photon emission is illustrated in the chart shown in figure H. Figure I shows the thermal image you’re more accustomed to seeing.

 

10 Things You Didn't Know About Light1) It’s possible to trick your brain into seeing imaginary (and “impossible”) colors
Your brain uses what are known as “opponent channels” to receive and process light. On one hand, these opponent channels allow you to process visual information more efficiently (more on this here), but they also prevent you from seeing, for example, an object that is simultaneously emitting wavelengths that could be interpreted as blue and yellow — even if such a simultaneous, “impossible” color could potentially exist.

In theory, you can train yourself to see these and other so-called “imaginary” colors with a few simple tricks, which you can check out in our quick, how-to guide on seeing impossible and imaginary colors.

Republished from http://io9.com

http://gizmodo.com/5843897/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-light?tag=optics